How is PBDE harmful?
How is PBDE harmful?
❖ Studies in rats and mice show that PBDEs cause neurotoxicity, developmental neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, thyroid toxicity, immunotoxicity, liver toxicity, pancreas effects (diabetes) and cancer (penta and decabromodiphenyl ether).
What does PBDE cause?
The European Union banned the use of two PBDEs (Penta- and OctaBDE) in 2004 due to increasing evidence that PBDEs may result in thyroid toxicity, liver toxicity, and neurodevelopmental toxicity, and because PBDEs accumulate in human breast milk (13).
Is PBDE a carcinogen?
IARC has classified PBDE as a Group 3 carcinogen (not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans) based on inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and inadequate or limited evidence in experimental animals (IARC 2014).
How can you be exposed to PBDE?
Humans can be exposed to PBDEs in a wide variety of ways, including eating contaminated foods or contaminated dusts/soils, breathing in contaminated air, or having skin contact with contaminated soil/dust/commercial products.
How do I get rid of PBDE?
7 ways to reduce your exposure to PBDE flame retardants
- Whenever possible choose PBDE-free electronics and furniture.
- Avoid contact with decaying or crumbling foam that might contain fire retardants.
- Use a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter vacuum cleaner.
How does PBDE affect animals?
Large differences in effects are seen between highly-brominated and less brominated PBDEs in animal studies. Preliminary evidence suggests that high concentrations of PBDEs may cause neurobehavioral alterations and affect the immune system in animals.
Where is PBDE found?
PBDEs are found in a variety of consumer products, from TVs and toasters to mattresses and drapes. These chemicals are intended to slow the rate of ignition and fire growth, allowing people more time to escape from a fire or extinguish it.
Why is PBDE in our environment?
The disposal of materials treated with PBDEs, for example if disposed of in landfill sites or illegally dumped, permits PBDEs to enter the environment and ecosystems. Studies have shown that PBDE concentration levels are elevated in sewage treatment works (De Boer et al.
When was PBDE banned?
Brominated flame retardant chemicals, banned in the U.S. since 2004, still pollute the bodies of newborn American babies, according to a new study from Indiana University scientists. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, or PBDEs, were once widely used in products including furniture foam and electronics.
Is PBDE still used?
Flame retardant manufacturers in the U.S. voluntarily stopped producing the PentaBDE (used in furniture foam) and OctaBDE (used in electronic products) varieties of PBDEs in 2004 and have begun producing alternative flame retardants; however, DecaBDE continues to be produced and used in the U.S., primarily in …
What is PBDE-free?
Make sure furniture is PBDE-free. If the label says “CONTAINS NO ADDED FLAME RETARDANTS” that means it’s free of flame retardants. If label is marked with “CONTAINS ADDED FLAME RETARDANTS” that means it contains flame retardants.
What products have PBDE?
Finished products that may contain PBDEs are furniture foam padding; wire insulation; rugs, draperies, and upholstery; and plastic cabinets for televisions, personal computers, and small appliances.
What are the side effects of PBDE?
PBDE TOXICITY. They are believed to cause liver tumors, neurodevelopmental and thyroid dysfunctions. Exposure to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), close molecular analogs of PBDEs, has been associated with fatigue, reduced capacity to work, increased sleep, headache, dizziness and irritability.
Are PBDEs toxic to children?
The toxicology of PBDEs is not well understood, but PBDEs have been associated with tumors, neurodevelopmental toxicity and thyroid hormone imbalance. The neurotoxic effects of PBDEs are similar to those observed for PCBs. Children exposed to PBDEs are prone to subtle but measurable developmental problems.
What causes exposure to PBDEs and PBBs?
Another source of exposure results from breathing contaminated air or swallowing contaminated dust. Working in industries that make these chemicals or that make, repair, or recycle products containing these chemicals flame retardants can result in exposure. Human health effects from PBDEs and PBBs at low environmental exposures are unknown.
What is PBDE and how can I reduce exposure?
How can I reduce exposure? PBDEs, or polybrominated diphenyl ethers, are industrial toxic flame retardant chemicals used in consumer electronics, furniture, and mattresses. PBDEs are no longer produced in the U.S. but are still present in many items in our homes and elsewhere.