What did Albert Kligman do?
What did Albert Kligman do?
Albert Montgomery Kligman (March 17, 1916 – February 9, 2010) was an American dermatologist who co-invented Retin-A, the acne medication, with James Fulton in 1969.
Who is Albert Kligman?
Albert M. Kligman, a dermatologist who invented the widely used acne medication Retin-A but whose experiments involving prisoners raised ethical questions that dogged his career, died Feb. 9 in Philadelphia. He was 93.
Who invented tretinoin?
Tretinoin was co-developed for its use in acne by James Fulton and Albert Kligman when they were at University of Pennsylvania in the 1960s.
What were the Holmesburg Prison trials?
It was documented that the experimentation at Holmesburg prison “entailed hair transplants, implantation of foreign bodies, burns and radiation of the skin, exposure to dioxin, application and ingestion of toxic, near lethal doses of retinoin A, inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus, and the yanking out of fingernails.” …
How was Retin A discovered?
While some hardening of the skin was achieved, many of the substances used were so toxic that intense blistering resulted. After three years researching skin hardness, Kligman turned his studies to acidic Vitamin A, known as tretinoin or retinoic acid.
Who created retinol?
In 1931, Swiss chemist Paul Karrer described the chemical structure of vitamin A. Retinoic acid and retinol were first synthesized in 1946 and 1947 by two Dutch chemists, David Adriaan van Dorp and Jozef Ferdinand Arens.
Is tretinoin stronger than retinol?
For the purposes of skin care, tretinoin can be thought of as a more concentrated version of retinol. This means that tretinoin is stronger than retinol. This difference in strength can help guide your decision-making when it comes to choosing a skin care product. Your skin is affected by more than what you put on it.
Does tretinoin affect hair growth?
Tretinoin was shown to stimulate some hair regrowth in approximately 58% of the subjects studied. One female subject with pronounced alopecia for more than 20 years had regrowth of hair using only tretinoin for a period of 18 months.
When was retinol first discovered?
Retinol, where it all Began. It all began in 1971 when Dr. Albert M Kligman, a famous Dermatologist at the University of Pennsylvania, USA, discovered Tretinoin (Retinoic Acid) for the treatment of acne.
What is retinol made from?
Retinol is one of the best-known skin care ingredients on the market. An over-the-counter (OTC) version of retinoids, retinol is derived (made from) vitamin A and is primarily used to treat mature-looking skin concerns as well as acne.
Does retinol affect the liver?
The commonly used retinoids have many of the side effects of vitamin A including dry skin, cheilosis and nosebleeds and hair loss, but are not stored in the liver and do not cause the typical form of chronic liver disease associated with excessive vitamin A intake.