# What is odds ratio and relative risk?

## What is odds ratio and relative risk?

The relative risk (also known as risk ratio [RR]) is the ratio of risk of an event in one group (e.g., exposed group) versus the risk of the event in the other group (e.g., nonexposed group). The odds ratio (OR) is the ratio of odds of an event in one group versus the odds of the event in the other group.

**Why is odds ratio better than relative risk?**

When the outcome is not rare in the population, if the odds ratio is used to estimate the relative risk it will overstate the effect of the treatment on the outcome measure. The odds ratio will be greater than the relative risk if the relative risk is greater than one and less than the relative risk otherwise.

### What is relative risk 95% CI?

Relative risk with 95% confidence interval is the inferential statistic used in prospective cohort and randomized controlled trials. With relative risk, the width of the confidence interval is the inference related to the precision of the treatment effect.

**Why is odds ratio used?**

The odds ratio tells us how much higher the odds of exposure are among case-patients than among controls. An odds ratio of • 1.0 (or close to 1.0) indicates that the odds of exposure among case-patients are the same as, or similar to, the odds of exposure among controls.

#### What is the formula for odds ratio?

In a 2-by-2 table with cells a, b, c, and d (see figure), the odds ratio is odds of the event in the exposure group (a/b) divided by the odds of the event in the control or non-exposure group (c/d). Thus the odds ratio is (a/b) / (c/d) which simplifies to ad/bc.

**How do you convert an RR to an odds ratio?**

To convert an odds ratio to a risk ratio, you can use “RR = OR / (1 – p + (p x OR)), where p is the risk in the control group” (source: http://www.r-bloggers.com/how-to-convert-odds-ratios-to-relative-risks/).

## Can you calculate risk from odds ratio?

The simplest way to ensure that the interpretation is correct is to first convert the odds into a risk. For example, when the odds are 1:10, or 0.1, one person will have the event for every 10 who do not, and, using the formula, the risk of the event is 0.1/(1+0.1) = 0.091.

**How do you interpret odds ratio?**

Odds Ratio is a measure of the strength of association with an exposure and an outcome.

- OR > 1 means greater odds of association with the exposure and outcome.
- OR = 1 means there is no association between exposure and outcome.
- OR < 1 means there is a lower odds of association between the exposure and outcome.

### What does an odds ratio of 1.5 mean?

You interpret an odds ratio the same way you interpret a risk ratio. An odds ratio of 1.5 means the odds of the outcome in group A happening are one and a half times the odds of the outcome happening in group B.

**How do you explain odds ratio?**

Odds of an event happening is defined as the likelihood that an event will occur, expressed as a proportion of the likelihood that the event will not occur. Therefore, if A is the probability of subjects affected and B is the probability of subjects not affected, then odds = A /B.